Plaster – used for external or internal coating for walls or ceilings. Plaster is mortar made of cementing materials (cement and lime or gypsum) and a fine aggregate (normally sand). The plaster is the main finishing material in modern and traditional construction and is used for many purposes, including sealing and insulation. In addition, the plaster is used as foundation for paint layers in the building and can be used as finishing material, as done with stucco type plaster.
There are two main types of plaster:
Interior plaster – is the inner shell of the building, used as foundation for the paint and gives the walls a smooth and even appearance. In order to ensure that the plaster's flatness, make sure there are no bumps or dents that may cause cracks. Interior plaster requires at least two layers. The first layer, the flattening layer, is about 10 mm thick. It is the stronger layer and it contains coarse sand, lime and cement. The second layer, the finishing layer, is applied on the next day and its thickness is about 2 mm. The plaster on the second layer is finer and contains fine sea sand and lime. In the final phase, there is an examination using a long ruler in order to ensure that the plaster is totally flat, and finally rubbing and polishing the plaster in order to smooth it out.
Renewing plaster on a wall built of mud plaster externally – covers the external walls of the building. Its purpose is to protect the building from weather damages (it withstands water and sun), and it is also possible to give it qualities of thermal insulation and acoustic insulation.
Before applying the plaster, it is required to ensure that the surface is flat, without any bumps or dents. External plaster is made of three layers. The first layer is called a layer of cement. It's a cement plaster 3-5 mm's thick, and its purpose is to insulate the wall and give a good foundation for applying the flattening layer. The second layer, is the flattening layer, is done on the next day, and its purpose is to flatten the surface. The third layer in external plaster, the finishing layer, is the one which gives the appearance of the plaster. The main methods are:
• Regular external plaster – contains fine sand, lime and cement.
• Painted stucco – a thin layer of plaster sprayed from a spraying machine. Acrylic paint is sprayed on the plaster which improves the sealing and paints the external wall of the building.
• Thrown plaster – the plaster is thrown by a trowel and is made of fine aggregates and cement.
• Plastic plaster – the third layer is sprayed from a spraying machine and contains plastic material.
• Acoustic plaster – a standard type of plaster, except the second layer which would contain in addition stone wool fibers, giving the plaster acoustic insulation properties.
• Granulite plaster – a plaster with especially high durability, consists of two layers. The first layer consists of cement mortar and lime. The second layer consists of cement mortar and aggregates. The aggregate is the top layer and it is exposed. The type of aggregate used for this type of plaster would normally be stream pebbles which get exposed after washing the plaster, before its setting.
• Thermal plaster – a standard plaster with addition of polystyrene foam balls.
• Plaster for restoration and preservation of ancient buildings – for this type of projects, it is customary to use a mixture of slaked lime, hydraulic lime and graded mixtures of aggregates.
The plaster has been used since ancient times, and then it was prepared primarily by using gypsum or lime mixed with sand. In modern construction exterior plaster is prepared mainly from Portland cement which its strength does not diminish with water. Interior plaster is sometimes prepared from gypsum which is simple to use and with good acoustic qualities.
Thinking "green" from the house planning phase, while observing the microclimate in the area of the house being built, winds directions and lighting. Building materials in Austec Shamir are essentially "green", especially steel, which is used for house framing.
Steel is the most recycled material on earth, with over 66% of the raw material for the steel industry derives from recycling.